Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health

It was therapeutic for Warriors fans after enduring the agony of the worst collapse in Finals history the year before, but even then, the whole thing felt like "yup, this is what's supposed to happen." There was very little drama, very little debate, and in the end, the result everyone was sure of happened. That doesn't generate a lot of conversation or interest. It just kind of is what it is.
n. 运输,运输系统,运输工具
与此同时,有一首非常有意思的歌曲来自我们的读者Libby Russell,是她为所有世界杯期间的足球寡妇所作。非常感谢Libby的分享,太棒了!
Gitanjali因为拿下了本次最高奖项,从而获得了一笔2.5万美元的奖金。
[i'li:g?l]
What’s more, in recognition of their working on the bizarre properties of matter in extreme states and taking their research all the way down to an atomic scale, the Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to three British-born scientists who currently work in the US.
拉娜福鲁哈尔(Rana Foroohar)
中国财富榜每年的变化反映了中国资本的流动,显示了这个国家超级富豪的金融实力。
Costco CEO Craig Jelinek
Global warming and a powerful El weather event combined to make 2015 the planet’s hottest year since modern records began in the 1800s, according to scientists, who warned this year could be even warmer.
What the government should do is to send a resounding message of “yes” to the all law-abiding market entities, to flash the green light of going ahead to the hardworking entrepreneurs and innovators, and to seriously deal with all violations of laws and regulations by showing them a resolutely a “yellow card” of stern warning, or even a “red card” to send them out of the market.
佐治亚州萨凡纳市(SAVANNAH, GA.)
NBS senior statistician Sheng Guoqing attributed the slowdown mainly due to a 1.4-percent decline in food prices, which were down for the first time in 15 years.
In contrast to Hunter’s, her Piano co-star Anna Paquin’s Oscar seems to have no fixed abode, flitting between her sock drawer and on the floor next to her boots.
adj. 最高的,至上的,极度的
The former Miss Israel, Gal Gadot spot 6th in the list of 10 most beautiful women of 2015. She is the leading fashion model for the clothing company Castro. Gadot is known for her role as Gisele Yashar in The Fast and the Furious film series.
“As we work to keep and attract more young professionals and job creators, we appreciate every young person who is engaged and invested in our state.”
“I am proud of my position as a boss, as a person that runs my own company,” Perry told FORBES for our Celebrity 100 cover story this past summer. “I’m an entrepreneur. … I don’t want to shy away from it. I actually want to kind of grab it by its b---s.”
Against: Could the film be seen as a film of great performances, rather than a truly great piece of cinema
6. 米兰达·兰伯特(Miranda Lambert),《白金》(Platinum),RCA Nashville。兰伯特很快从坚强的新贵蜕变为光芒四射的乡村乐贵族,这张《白金》是她最好的专辑,她带着轻松的权威之感逾越了界限。专辑中伤感与世俗的情绪交替出现,修饰和粗粝的比例恰到好处,这张专辑让人们明白她有着强大的力量,向任何低估她实力的人发出挑战。
公司:(Wonderbag)Natural Balance公司
出口复苏可能在一定程度上化解人们对于新兴市场国家的悲观看法。在本世纪初的那些年,许多新兴市场国家曾把出口强劲增长作为经济快速发展的跳板,后来出口由盛转衰了。
库什纳回忆道,我当时被他深深折服了。他到新闻集团去见默多克时,我与他有了第一次接触,当时我被一同叫去提提意见。达洛伊西奥在会上描述了他想要实现的远景。他帮助默多克加深了对一些事物的见解。达洛伊西奥在台上的优异表现,加上背后李嘉诚的雄厚财力,为Summly招来了包括艾什顿?库奇(Ashton Kutcher)、小野洋子(Yoko Ono)、史蒂芬?弗莱(Stephen Fry)等许多人的捐赠。
Whatever happened to ‘Never complain; never explain' – the unofficial motto of the House of Windsor?
11) I often feel unhappy 0 1 2 3 4


不过,仍有人看涨油市。
adj. 吓人的
The BFC's news has been met with support from people on social media, who have applauded the designers choosing to forgo the use of animal fur.


With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of mobile phones, wearable devices such as smart watches, and sensors that can measure and gather a variety of data, public interest is growing in using consumer electronics to take ownership of personal health and wellness. A 2015 survey found that 66% of Americans age 66 and older want to use mobile technologies to improve their health by receiving medication reminders and tracking diet and nutrition, physical activity, and symptoms.[1

con共同,sci知道,ious多:什么都知道-清醒
历史学家希望解开有关理查三世的谜团,公开证据以反驳他杀害了两个年轻侄子的说法,重点关注他在位两年期间的成就,包括建立了保释制度和法律援助制度。
It was a rare glimpse into his closely guarded personal life that also put at risk Apple’s brand in less tolerant parts of the world. Mr Cook was driven to take a stand by his experiences growing up in Alabama, where he has talked of seeing discrimination that “literally would make me sick”.
The fall in profits in December highlights the challenges facing an industrial sector racked by overcapacity and falling prices, adding to pressure on authorities to loosen monetary policy and boost infrastructure spending to cushion the slowdown.

Health apps and wearables
Health apps and wearables can unobtrusively gauge physiological and emotional states and collect, quantify, and monitor data regarding a user’s day-to-day behaviors. This “quantified self” can increase users’ self-awareness regarding their behavior and encourage positive changes to their overall health and well-being.[2] These commercially available devices also integrate an array of features to provide motivation through reward systems, opportunities for social in-teraction, tools for self-improvement, and prompts. The novelty, affordability, practicality, and ease of use have resulted in increased consumer enthusiasm and the pervasiveness of these devices.[3,4] With this growing interest in personal health, members of the general public are becoming more involved in monitoring and improving their own health habits.[5-10

Undoubtedly, merely tracking data through a device is not enough to maintain good health-related behaviors long-term, and the software must also incorporate motivational constructs important for the adoption and habituation of behaviors. For instance, a systematic review of studies that considered the use of electronic activity monitor systems found short-term changes in physical activity with self-monitoring, but no demonstration of superiority when the systems were compared with other interventions.[11] Another review of studies on the viability of using mobile technology for measuring and influencing physical activity found that most apps allow users to document their activity, set goals, review real-time feedback, connect to a social support network, and access online expertise.[12] However, less common among these apps were prompts to act and opportunities for problem solving and action planning, which are crucial constructs that translate intention into long-term behavior change.[13]

Sensor technologies
Sensor technologies have begun to enter the telehealth landscape and are primarily focused on continuous monitoring and precise diagnostics to inform management of various health conditions and diseases.[14-17] Sensors can be integrated into a watch or arm band or adhesive bandages and clothing, and then programmed to collect data on cardiac rhythm, heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, oxygen saturation, galvanic skin response, glucose levels, body temperature, body motions, ambient temperature, and global positioning. For health care providers, sensor inputs can permit remote monitoring, real-time teleconferencing, and timely care for patients with chronic diseases. For both patients and clinicians, telehealth supported by sensors can have profound implications. Clinicians can provide timely and patient-centred care to those living at a distance with chronic disease and can coordinate care when multiple providers are involved, reducing costs to the health care system.

A current clinical example is the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with a mobile ECG and app that monitors the patient’s electrical rhythm to detect frequency and patterns of arrhythmias, and may even allow patients to share ultrasound and electrocardiogram data with their health care provider.[18-20] Telemonitoring with sensors can also support self-management of chronic diseases and detect early signs of deterioration in health requiring immediate treatment and advice.[21] Studies to date have demonstrated some clinical promise for the use of home telemonitoring in the context of heart failure and diabetes. A recent Cochrane review found that telemonitoring was an effective way to lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein.[22] Although several studies on heart failure have produced conflicting results regarding the overall benefits of home monitoring,[23-26] systematic reviews have suggested that home telemonitoring reduces all-cause mortality and hospitalizations, and improves quality of life compared with usual care.[22,27] In addition, features such as automated and mobile telemonitoring appear to be more effective compared with other forms of home telemonitoring.[27]

Further studies are needed to determine how home health monitoring can improve patient safety during the transition from acute care to community care, and to examine the impact of home monitoring on health care costs. TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), an initiative of the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health, is seeking to do this with prospective trials designed to uncover how telemonitoring can support the safety of heart failure patients discharged from hospital to home.[28]

Mobile apps, wearables, and sensors in the clinical setting
Even though mobile apps, wearables, and sensor technologies are promising, further research is needed to validate their use and long-term impact.[29] This research will require the collaboration of clinicians, health researchers, engineers, and computer scientists.[30] Understanding the possible risks of using these technologies, from physiological harm to breaching of privacy and confidentiality with insecure devices, and how to mitigate any risks is also important. Other important issues to consider include patient anxiety with overuse of technologies, health data piracy, self-diagnosis resulting from overreliance on self-monitoring, and patients not seeking help appropriately. These technologies should be used only as complementary tools in the treatment and prevention of health conditions and disease and should not be used in isolation by patients who self-diagnose and self-manage without consulting a health professional. 

这些人当中,有些人会借助另一些问题表达他们的忧虑:贸易、犯罪、毒品战争、边境控制、对伊斯兰恐怖主义的恐惧。诚然,这些问题都很重要,也为许多人带来了真切的恐惧,但是它们已经变成一种方式,公众借助这些问题来讨论社会变革对于占多数的白人群体的影响。

Instant Heart Rate by Azumio.[31] A free app downloadable to both Apple and Android operating systems that measures heart rate and displays a monitoring strip. As well as helping users accurately track their heart rates, the app is capable of detecting irregular rhythms when palpitations occur. 

Sleep Time by Azumio.[32] A free app that monitors sleep patterns, sleep efficiency, and also acts as an alarm clock. Users can know how often they go into light and deep sleep, and recognize how much of these types of sleep will be necessary for them to feel rested, thereby quantifying the amount of true sleep they need and not just how long they should stay in bed. 

Bellybio Interactive Breating by RelaxLine.[33] A free app that helps users pace their breathing to achieve calmness. Placing the mobile phone against the abdomen, users can follow the sounds emitted to practise deep, abdominal breathing using this simple yet surprisingly effective tool. 

此次内衣秀将在美国时间12月4日在CBS播出。
The regulator said that “faced with a complex and volatile market environment,” funds had realised gains of only Rmb294.5bn in the first half, a drop of 42.3 per cent.

n. 远景,看法,透视
尽管2016年受调查机场的平均准点率同比提高7%至70.4%,但航班平均延误时长为33分钟。
亲爱的朋友,你们即将毕业,呈现在你面前的世界拥有美好的前景和潜力;这个世界并不仅仅以办公室走廊或华尔街的形式出现,而是令人激动不已的真实世界,充满许多未解之谜,以及让人陶醉的体验。我们当中许多人都忽略了这个简单的真理。
n. 贷款,借出,债权人
根据野村证券(Nomura Securities)的数据,日本ETF市场管理的资产规模为2000亿美元,比亚太其他所有ETF市场的总规模还要高出约500亿美元。8月底,日本央行持有的ETF资产的市值为1750亿美元。
Meanwhile producer prices fell 4.9 per cent year-on-year in February, as expected, compared to a 5.3 per cent fall in January. The drop was the smallest in eight months.

Discernment to determine whether a particular app, wearable, or sensor can be effective.
Expertise and experience to guide patients on the use of technology.
Partnership with patients in pursuit of optimal health through technology use.
Trials to closely monitor benefits and drawbacks.
Humility to recognize that patients may know and invest much more time than physicians in looking for these tools.34

Conclusions
Based on today’s rapid pace of development and public enthusiasm for the technology marketplace, health apps, wearables, and sensors will soon become integral to our patients’ pursuits of good health and will need to be integrated in clinical practice. Physicians must be active agents in these evolutionary times, guiding patients, advocating for evidence to support the use of technologies, and participating in the development and incorporation of technology in patient wellness journeys. Through clinical stewardship and partnership with patients, physicians can use their expertise and experience to guide the growth of innovations into mainstream health care.

Competing interests
Dr Ho receives no personal financial compensation as the principal investigator of TEC4Home (Telehealth for Emergency-Community Continuity of Care Connectivity via Home Tele-monitoring), a project funded by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research grant. This grant is matched by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and the BC Ministry of Health, with additional support provided by TELUS Health and Sentrian. TELUS Health, Cisco, and Avizia have also provided equipment for display in Dr Ho’s Demonstration and Simulation Studio for Health (DaSSH) at UBC. Mr Yao and Dr Lauscher have no competing interests to declare.


房企业绩在7月出现回落


References

1. Cision PR Newswire. Fifth annual Pulse of Online Health survey finds 66% of Americans eager to leverage digital tools to manage personal health. Posted 24 February 2015. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/fifth-annual-pulse-of-online-health-survey-finds-66-of-americans-eager-to-leverage-digital-tools-to-manage-personal-health-300039986.html.

2. Swan M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: An examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2009;6:492-525.

3. Gao Y, Li H, Luo Y. An empirical study of wearable technology acceptance in healthcare. Ind Manag Data Syst 2010;115:1704-1723.

4. Kim KJ, Shin DH. An acceptance model for smart watches: Implications for the adoption of future wearable technology. Internet Res 2015;25:527-541.

5. West JH, Hall PC, Hanson CL, et al. There’s an app for that: Content analysis of paid health and fitness apps. J Med Internet Res 2012;14:e72.

6. Abroms LC, Padmanabhan N, Thaweethai L, Phillips T. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: A content analysis. Am J Prev Med 2011;40:279-285.

7. Cowan LT, Van Wagenen SA, Brown BA, et al. Apps of steel: Are exercise apps providing consumers with realistic expectations? A content analysis of exercise apps for presence of behavior change theory. Health Educ Behav 2013;40:133-139.

8. Azar KM, Lesser LI, Laing BY, et al. Mobile applications for weight management. Am J Prev Med 2013;45:583-589.

9. Breland JY, Yeh VM, Yu J. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines among diabetes self-management apps. Transl Behav Med 2013;3:277-286.

10. Lyons EJ, Lewis ZH, Mayrsohn BG, Rowland JL. Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: A systematic content analysis. J Med Internet Res 2014;16:e192.

11. Lewis ZH, Lyons EJ, Jarvis JM, Baillargeon J. Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2015;15:585.

12. Bort-Roig J, Gilson ND, Puig-Ribera A, et al. Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: A systematic review. Sports Med 2014;44:671-686.

13. Rhodes RE, Yao CA. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: A user’s guide, content overview, and review of current evidence. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015;12:1-14.

14. Chen M, Gonzalez S, Vasilakos A, et al. Body area networks: A survey. Mob Networks Appl 2011;16:171-193.

15. Appelboom G, Camacho E, Abraham ME, et al. Smart wearable body sensors for patient self-assessment and monitoring. Arch Public Health 2014;72:28.

16. Chan M, Estève D, Fourniols JY, et al. Smart wearable systems: Current status and future challenges. Artif Intell Med 2012;56:137-156.

17. Alemdar H, Ersoy C. Wireless sensor networks for healthcare: A survey. Comput Networks 2010;54:2688-2710.

18. Haberman ZC, Jahn RT, Bose R, et al. Wireless smartphone ECG enables large-scale screening in diverse populations. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2015;26:520-526.

19. Ferdman DJ, Liberman L, Silver ES. A smartphone application to diagnose the mechanism of pediatric supraventricular tachycardia. Pediatr Cardiol 2015;36:1452-1457.

20. Baquero GA, Banchs JE, Ahmed S, et al. Surface 12 lead electrocardiogram recordings using smart phone technology. J Electrocardiol 2015;48:1-7.

21. Wootton R. Twenty years of telemedicine in chronic disease management—An evidence synthesis. J Telemed Telecare 2012;18:211-220.

22. Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer A, et al. Interactive telemedicine: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database System Rev 2015;(9):CD002098.

23. Mortara A, Pinna GD, Johnson P, et al. Home telemonitoring in heart failure patients: The HHH study (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure). Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:312-318.

24. Dar O, Riley J, Chapman C, et al. A randomized trial of home telemonitoring in a typical elderly heart failure population in North West London: Results of the Home-HF study. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:319-325.

25. Chaudhry SI, Mattera JA, Curtis JP, et al. Telemonitoring in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2301-2309.

26. Koehler F, Winkler S, Schieber M, et al. Impact of remote telemedical management on mortality and hospitalizations in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure: The Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure study. Circulation 2011;123:1873-1880.

27. Kitsiou S, Pare G, Jaana M. Effects of home telemonitoring interventions on patients with chronic heart failure: An overview of systematic reviews. J Med Internet Res 2015;17:e63.

28. TEC4Home Healthcare Innovation Community. Supporting heart failure patient transitions from acute to community care with home telemonitoring technology: A protocol for a provincial randomized controlled trial (TEC4Home). JMIR Res Protoc 2016;5:e198. 

29. Yao C, Ho K. Mobile sensors and wearable technologies. In: Amelung VE, Stein V, Goodwin N, et al., editors. Handbook integrated care. Cham, Switzerland: Springer; 2017.

30. Ho K, Borycki E, Kushniruk A, et al. The health perspective in using digital media for health and wellness. Presented at the IEEE International Digital Media Industry Forum, Boston, MA, 4-6 July 2016.

31. Azumio Inc. Instant heart rate. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/instantheartrate/index.html. 

32. Azumio Inc. Sleep time. Accessed 28 August 2017. www.azumio.com/s/sleeptime/index.html. 

33. RelaxLine. BellyBio. Accessed 28 August 2017. https://itunes.apple.com/ca/app/bellybio-interactive-breathing/id353763955?mt=8.

34. Ho K. How health information technologies are enhancing health of patients and their doctors. Presentation at the Alberta Medical Association 2015 Spring Representatives Forum, Edmonton, AB, 13 March 2015.


谷歌和亚马逊分居第二、三名。
1.Bladeless Fans
China had a full-year GDP target of “around 6.5 per cent” for 2017.
英国《金融时报》2017年高管教育排行榜列出了全球85个最佳定制课程和75个最佳开放课程。排名主要基于学员和客户的满意度以及学校收入增长、国际化程度和师资多样性等指标。
这个触动人心的成长故事完美捕捉了一个人从青少年初长为成年人的甜蜜又苦涩的阶段。
中子星相撞
1950年世界杯决赛,巴西1比2不敌乌拉圭,与冠军失之交臂。对现在的巴西球迷来说,那依然是一段令人痛楚的耻辱史。如今,贝尔蒙特老爷子已经85岁高龄,他希望能够看到祖国重拾桑巴荣耀。“我希望巴西再次夺冠。”他说。“这是我们的复仇之战,我很想去看。”
吉密欧(Jamil Anderlini)
A report by human resources website Zhaopin released recently found that only 3.1 percent of students expecting to graduate in July said they will start their own business, down from 6.3 percent in 2015.
凯文·杜兰特

Kendall Ho, MD, FRCPC, Christopher Yao, MSc, Helen Novak Lauscher, PhD. Part 2: Health apps, wearables, and sensors: The advancing frontier of digital health. BCMJ, Vol. 59, No. 10, December, 2017, Page(s) 503-506 - Clinical Articles.



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Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

About the ICMJE and citation styles

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2.Nobody here can answer any questions you have about fencing. Google it.
6年来第一次,新的挑战者领衔英国《金融时报》高管MBA(EMBA)课程排行榜。
直播平台的观众可以给主播送需要花钱买的虚拟礼物。礼物的价格从0.1元到1000元不等。直播平台从中抽取一定比例的提成。
'Don't ever do this again,' she said to herself. 'It's so scary.'

Many successful entrepreneurs started later in life. J. K. Rowling (Harry Potter author), Julia Child (chef), and Sam Walton (Wal-Mart) all started their wildly successful brands after they were comfortably along in their lives. Having the experience that comes with age can give you a unique outlook on your business. Life experiences bring depth that the most educated young adult, by his or her nature, is less able to foresee.

  • Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
  • 北京市住建委解读:抵扣后个税为零不影响在京购房
  • 2015家居业十大热词大盘点


v. 撤退,向后倾
But although he foresees a “noticeable pick-up in exports” in the first quarter of 2017, the UBS man is keen to play down any euphoria. He believes year-on-year growth will weaken and maybe even turn negative by the second half of 2017 because “volume is not picking up in a big way and the base effect [of last year’s weak commodity prices] will fall off” during the course of 2017.

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